|If the first vowel is এ (pronounced e) or ও, then these change to ই and উ respectively in some conjugated forms in order to achieve vowel harmony.|
|If the first vowel is এ (pronounced æ) or অ, then the pronunciation of the first vowel changes to এ (pronounced e) and ও respectively, in the same pattern as above, but the spelling of the first vowel remains unchanged.|
|থাকা||If the first vowel is আ then it does not change like the above types, but does change to এ (pronounced e) in the perfective participle and perfect tenses.|
|আসা||The verb আসা conjugates like থাকা but contains some irregularities in which the স is dropped.|
|Verbs ending in -ওয়া|
|The হওয়া verb conjugates using the prefix হ- and with the same pattern of initial vowel pronunciation used in করা et al except in the future tense. Verbs ending with োয়া follow the same pattern as হওয়া.|
|These verbs each have a sadhu companion verb: বহা, রহা, সহা and কহা. The companion verb is used exclusively in shadhu bhasa. These verbs use two prefixes in their chalit conjugations (eg, ব- and বই-). Otherwise they follow the same pattern of conjugation and vowel modification as হওয়া.|
|লওয়া||The shadhu verb লওয়া has no chalit form (নেওয়া takes its place), conjugates like হওয়া, but also has an archaic shadu equivalent verb লহা.|
|Like বওয়া et al, these verbs also have shadhu companion verbs: গাহা, চাহা, বাহা and নাহা. So they too use two prefixes in their conjugations (eg, গা- and গাই-). Otherwise they conjugate like হওয়া, but with the initial vowel behavior of থাকা, since their initial vowel is আ.|
|These are irregular in their use of three different prefixes (eg, দে-, দি- and দা). Moreover they use both pronunciations of এ – the words দেন and দেয় (and their negated and emphatic forms) are pronounced as অ্যা (æ), while the future imperatives (eg, দেব) are pronounced like এ (e).|
|যাওয়া||The যাওয়া verb has an irregular use of three prefixes, যা, যে, and গে, and also changes to the গ consonant in its perfective participle গিয়ে. In all past tenses the initial vowel এ is pronounced as e except গেল, which is pronounced as æ. The colloquial form of the perfect tenses (eg, গেছি, গেছিলাম) are all pronounced with æ.|
|These conjugate somewhat differently from গাওয়া et al, especially in shadhu.|
|Causative verbs undergo fewer vowel mutations when they are conjugated. In chalit, only the perfective participle, perfect conjugations and tumi future imperative undergo vowel mutation. In shadhu there are no vowel mutations.|
|Mock-causative verbs end in নো but do not have a corresponding verb without the নো like causatives do (eg, করা and করানো). If a mock-causative verb contains a conjunct or two adjacent consonants that are pronounced like a conjunct, a simplified perfective participle is used that is as if the verb was non-causative (eg, পাল্টে, আটকে). Perfective tenses use this compact participle. Otherwise, these verbs conjugate like other causative verbs.|
- There is some helpful color coding in the conjugation tables. If the background color looks like this then the initial vowel should be pronounced using the low stem as in the chalit verbal noun. Otherwise it should be pronounced using the high stem unless the spelling indicates otherwise. For the আসা and যাওয়া verbs, entries that look like this are especially irregular. In the shadhu tables, entries that look like this are identical to chalit.
- When you request a verb conjugation, if the initial vowel is এ the system checks the dictionary to see how it ought to be pronounced. In some cases the word may be missing from the dictionary or may have both entries available. If you want to specifically look up a word that uses এ pronounced as অ্যা, then you must type "<ae>" at the end of your query. For example, compare মেলা to মেলা<ae>. The former conjugates like শেখা and the latter like দেখা.
- If you look up a shadhu verbal noun like শিখা or বুঝা you'll get back the conjugation table for the chalit verb (eg, শেখা, বোঝা), including the shadhu conjugations.
- I've left out any tenses that don't require new forms of the verb, like future continuous and shadhu negative present perfect.
- Shadhu bhasha tends to prefer conjunct verbs over simple verbs, so some verbs are not really expected to appear in shadhu bhasha. That said, some shadhu conjugations of chalit verbs do show up now and then, so I include shadhu conjugations for all verbs.